Category

sdg 9

Jaya Baloo’s cybersecurity tips

By sdg 16, sdg 17, sdg 9, technology

Jaya Baloo, one of the world’s leading experts on cyber-security, gives us advice on how to protect our devices and personal data. She also explains the incentives hackers can have and the differences in cyber-attacks. Private citizens, large corporations or even governments can be victims.

PART I

CRISTINA: Jaya should we be concerned?

JAYA: Yes we should, but i supposed the extent to which we should be concerned depends on you. It depends on what it is that you have to protect and from whom. If you’re a person, an individual, or you’re a company or a government, those concerns can greatly vary. And it terms of who you have to protected it from, I like to say that there are three motivations of hackers: fun, profit and politics. And they usually go in that order. And we start with individual hacker who is kind curious and wants to do it for fun, to cybercriminals who do it for profit, and state-sponsored hackers, who do it for political motivation.

CRISTINA: What are three major hacks in each of these categories so people can understand the scope?

JAYA: Let me give you three type of hacks, when we talk about the individual hacker, what we see them do are kind of simple hacks, but they’re very effective. Things like a distributed denial of service attack, where services – usually online services – don’t became available because they’re getting flooded with traffic. That is one example of something that an individual hacker very easily can set up, but it’s not always easy to defend against.

CRISTINA: And you were saying you can hire someone do that for 40 euros and it mainly means that they’ll just deluge your webserver with information and it can’t handle it.

JAYA: No and it can’t handle any valid requests anymore, so we see this happening, but it’s not just a volume of type of attack, it’s also different types of application attacks. They’re difficult to defend against and they cost companies millions to arrange properly. So that’s individual hackers. If you look at the cybercriminal, we’ve seen the largest bank heist in history for over a billion dollars worth. We saw that disruption and you see ransomware affecting regular people, where their computer gets encrypted and they can only get it decrypted if they send a bitcoin payment to the criminal. And then when it comes to state-sponsored attacks, where should i start? We see it everywhere, we saw it with hacking of the US selection, we see influence in the European elections, you saw that the Italian navy was trying to be hacked. There are so many things happening in this space.

CRISTINA: Who is doing what in Italy that we should know about?

JAYA: If I had to pick one italian hero, it would probably be Paolo Villoresi. He is from the University of Padova and I actually think we should pay way more attention to people like him and give him lots more funding to keep continuing his research.

PART II

CRISTINA: Jaya what can we do on an individual level to protect ourselves?

JAYA: I think it starts with keeping it simple. Let’s first make sure all of our software and hardware is up to date. That means applying updates as soon as they become available. Don’t wait three weeks and then have thirty-five thousand updates still waiting for you.
The second really simple thing, which is not sexy, is backups. Just backup your data, both online and offline. Using an antivirus and two-factor authentication, really the majority of the low hanging fruit for a hacker is gone.

CRISTINA: So people think it’s so convenient, you know now, when they put search online then system figures out what they like and then they get more of what they like. That’s really a not good thing right?

JAYA: The most precious commodity we have to give is time, so if we can gain a bit of that, it would be great, but I think not at the expense of our security and privacy. We can only be free to use the fruits of our digital innovation if we don’t have to worry about if our data is being stolen, is it being shared with people that I never intended to? We need to take control of our data and really understand who we have to trust.

CRISTINA: And instead for organizations, corporations or governments?

JAYA: I am very worried about our national critical infrastructure, and I think governments can prioritize that. From drinkwater, energy, to telecommunications and in that order, that we actually have a program to look for vulnerabilities in those sectors and patch them. We have a responsibility as a country to the citizens and I feel that it’s just as valid in Italy as it is in the Netherlands that we really have to look at where our vulnerabilities are. Where would a hacker try to attack if they’re trying to attack national infrastructure and eliminate the possibility by focusing on our defense instead of offensive tactics to gather information from others.

CRISTINA: Such as eavesdropping on conversations?

JAYA: Eavesdropping, signals intelligence or hacking back to other countries. I’m absolutely against this hacking back because it means that we’re escalating the issue rather than de-escalating and negotiating and dialogue. I’d really like us to focus on cyber-peace and our own defenses.

CRISTINA: And what’s heartening is that there is a lot of talent in Italy from your perspective.

JAYA: There is tons of talent in Italy. I’m a big fan of the universities in Italy, I think there’s a lot on offer if we just visit the campus, I think we just need to encourage companies to work more closely with academia.

The power of trash

By ecology, sdg 11, sdg 12, sdg 13, sdg 14, sdg 15, sdg 17, sdg 7, sdg 9, technology

Arthur Huang, architect, engineer and CEO of Miniwiz explains his processes and machines to use the most abundant resource on our planet: trash! Trashpresso, a portable solar-powered recycling machine was in Milan’s Parco Sempione during the Salone Internazionale del Mobile 2018.

PART I

Cristina: Arthur, what is the power of trash for you?

Arthur Huang: It is the most abundant resource that’s out there right now. It’s in our ocean, it’s in our water, it’s even in the glacier at 4.900m. This trash resource is growing so I think we need to do something about it to power our new way of designing and our lifestyle.

Cristina: You are doing something about it. How many systems have you designed?

Arthur Huang: We actually designed 1.200 new processes and they come with 4 big categories of machinery, which can sort and transform the material from the original raw source of trash that we throw away every day from cups, bottles, packaging, all the way to waste fiber. From these four major categories we can go into lots of different variations of pre-fabricated material for designers and engineers to be able to use in building construction or for products.

Cristina: You’re wearing a number of your new materials. Can you point them out?

Arthur Huang: This is 100% single material, without glue in it, it’s made 100% from plastic bottles. This is also made with 100% plastic bottles but it feels like wool. The shoes are also made from recycled PET. Even the buttons and the sunglasses and the watch strap are made from cigarette butts. This button was made from four butts, that we collected from Switzerland and Italy and we’re turning into a new form of buttons and hardware and sunglasses. These are the sunglasses.

Cristina: And how much energy does it take to actually strip some of these materials from their toxic elements?

Arthur Huang: It is actually much easier than you think, that’s why we designed the portable machine called Trashpresso, to demonstrate how little energy is used. All of the machines are actually powered by the sun, all the water and air is internally recycled, so we want to show people that the transformation process actually requires very little energy, as little energy as possible. You get a 90% savings in energy in the transformation, rather than going out there into the ocean, taking out the oil, producing that and transforming it into raw material.

Cristina: There are no toxins left in the the cigarette button?

Arthur Huang: Actually we did a whole set of safety tests and there isn’t anything left in the cigarette butts after the transformation process, there are some fumes, but they’re captured by the machine. A lot of times during the transformation process the toxins are actually already exposed in terms of fume.

PART II

Cristina: We’re reading on the papers that there’s more recycled materials than the market demands, so this is a critical issue, and people are burning these stocks of transformed trash. How can your strategy and your system have an impact on a global scale?

Arthur Huang: First of all, most of our systems are designed to be portable. I think this is very important, you need to take the transformation technology as close to the trash source as possible. Most of the problem today is that when you recycle, you mix the materials. Once you get contamination, the material has no value, once the material has no value, the transformation process has become very expensive and it also becomes more environmentally damaging. The idea is to bring the machine as close to the source as possible and then you can transform it into a medium that the designers and engineers can work with on site.

Cristina: From your experience where are the missing links to be able to harness all this expertise, intelligence and solutions?

Arthur Huang: The missing link is the recycling process itself, you need to know how to sort the trash. That’s the first question. All the recycled materials out there, no matter how much percentage you collect, in reality only less than 2% is being used to be turned into some sort of recycled substitute material. And then on top of that, after you know how to sort and process the material, you have to know how to form it. And there is the whole transformation process with all the different data that’s needed. You also need application, is it going to go into shoes? Jackets? Is it going into a chair, or a building? These all have different specifications, so right now all that missing link of data is what we are working on. We are opening up a material database with 1.200 new materials in it to open source data from our learning in the last 15 years to give to institutions for education so young designers and engineers can play with the material. So we are trying to fill the missing link with data.

Cristina: What is your moonshot?

Arthur Huang: Our moonshot right now is to build an airplane made out of trash. We actually bought an airplane from Germany and we shipped it to Taiwan and now we’re actually trying to come up with a new process to build an airplane wing made from recycled PET.

Tooteko – a tactile conversation with art for the blind

By sdg 10, sdg 9, technology

Tooteko is a thesis project turned reality. Serena Ruffato, CEO, explains how their device works: making art accessible to the blind and visually impaired by integrating tactile exploration with audio data. Deborah Tramentozzi shares her experience of a Canova statue with me.

Cristina: We’re in Rome in a space that is now a restaurant, but was once the studio of Antonio Canova. We’re here to tell you about a technological application that’s also an important human experience. Serena, how does the application you created work?

Serena Ruffato: This technology combines audio and touch to allow everyone, even the blind, to experience works of art. It uses this ring, an NFC sensor reader, to recognize the sensors we place on the art work and transmits audio information to a smartphone.

Cristina: Altering the art means that you work with copies.

Serena Ruffato: Absolutely, we take the original piece, select it, scan it, reproduce it with 3D printing and then apply our sensors.

Cristina: Deborah, tell us how you’re equipped to live this experience and what it tells you.

Deborah Tramentozzi: I’m wearing this ring, which has an antenna inside it. This antenna communicates with a tag that is placed here on the statue, which I will now touch with a finger. The moment I put it on the tag, the ring emits a vibration and communicates with the smartphone. Which will start an audio guide. Now I’ll show you how it works. This technology, by connecting the two senses that I use best – touch and hearing – allows me to have a vision, I like to call it that, of the work of art without any filters. I come from an artistic environment, so I have always experienced guided tours through the filter of another person, who gave me an idea allowing me to interpret the work of art. This way, it’s me and my personality who get an idea of ​​the work of art and I can literally see just how each of you would. I think this is a great gift because giving the blind the independence and freedom to choose to enter a museum, something that is second nature to everyone, for me is truly a frontier that I thought would be impossible. Can I ask you to close your eyes, and I’ll start the next tag and touch the statue with you?

Cristina: Absolutely, thank you. It’s exciting, because it also allows me to enter into a kind of empathic resonance with Deborah’s experience. We hope that this project will allow as many people as possible to experience art in this new way. Occhio al futuro

On air November 17, 2018

A trip to the future with Cristina Pozzi

By sdg 16, sdg 17, sdg 8, sdg 9, technology

Does your head spin when you think about the future of work, society and family? I went on a short trip with Cristina Pozzi, author of 2050 Guida (fu)turistica per viaggiatori nel tempo [2050 (Fu)Turistic guide for time travelers]. Cristina is also the founder of  Impactscool, which brings training courses to Italian schools and universities, preparing for the big changes taking place.

Cristina: What are the changes that await us in the coming years? Cristina you’re a social entrepreneur and writer and you traveled into the future. What did you see?

Cristina Pozzi: The future I saw in 2050 is one where the environment in which we live changes because, alas, due to climate change, our planet will be subject to many changes, but also the same concept of family could be questioned, mutate, evolve, due to the evolution of genetics. For example, children could have three parents born by using the genetic material of all three, it has already been done in England.

Cristina: How are we going to increase our cognitive skills?

Cristina Pozzi: We can do it in many ways, both from a chemical point of view with medicines that are being studied to increase our attention and also with so-called neurotechnologies – we can have implants or helmets to wear that increase our creativity.

Cristina: And what if they are not within everyone’s reach because of the cost?

Cristina Pozzi: Only a few could benefit. We probably don’t want to see a society where only a few people can be smarter, more successful at work or have access to certain treatments to stay healthy. For those who cannot afford it, there may be scenarios where you can even get access to a technology in exchange for advertising, perhaps continuous, so you can always use it for “free”.

Cristina: What about sharing your DNA data?

Cristina Pozzi: That could also become a source of income, one of the many jobs that we might have because most likely we will no longer have just one job but many at the same time.

Cristina: And many jobs we know today will disappear. Which ones do you think will remain or become strategic?

Cristina Pozzi: Definitely finding ourselves immersed in a reality that’s changing fast and that we struggle to understand, perhaps also due to the presence of robots around us in many situations, the role of psychologists who can help us manage this transition, will be essential.

Cristina: Do you think there is a correct path to make this journey towards the future?

Cristina Pozzi: For now, no. The advice I always give is learn to be curious and learn to learn.

Cristina: So, by combining our natural talents and our intellect, heart, creativity and willpower. Occhio al futuro!

On air September 9, 2018

Airlite – the air purifying paint

By ecology, sdg 11, sdg 12, sdg 13, sdg 3, sdg 9

Airlite developed a paint that purifies the air and can be used both indoors and outdoors. It neutralizes odors, bacteria and prevents mold, it repels dust and dirt and reduces air pollution.

Cristina: Don’t we all feel better when the air is light? Today we’re featuring a technology that allows us to breathe better. Hello Massimo, tell us more.

Massimo Bernardoni: It’s a paint that contains various technologies. It purifies the air, eliminates bacteria and molds from surfaces, it works over time and eliminates odors. Through nanotechnology our paint transforms pollutants into salts. Through other processes it gets rid of bacteria, mold and it keeps walls clean and smog free.

Cristina: Does it prevent the black streaks over radiators?

Massimo Bernardoni: Yes those too, no more dark corners.

Cristina: Is it all mineral-based? Any petrochemicals?

Massimo Bernardoni: We do not have any petroleum based ingredients, only mineral-based, and when applied it doesn’t smell.

Antonio Cianci: Outdoors, with this technology, painting a 150 meter stretch of roadside, both left and right, is equivalent to planting a forest as big as a soccer field. 12 meters of a painted surface with our technology, reduce the pollution produced by a car in one day.

Cristina: Does it also absorb particulates?

Antonio Cianci: In an indirect way. Particulate matter is generated by nitrogen oxides through photochemical synthesis, we lower its levels and reduce it significantly.

Cristina: It also reduces energy consumption. How?

Antonio Cianci: We have the amazing ability to reflect the warm component of sunlight, therefore painting the wall with this product can reduce the surface temperature up to 30 degrees. This way less heat passes through therefore reducing the need for conditioning the room.

Cristina: So it creates a protective but permeable coat?

Antonio Cianci: Yes, the paint is permeable, it allows the passage of all the components without causing stagnation, such as those bubbles we sometimes find on our walls, which trap mold. Our paint creates a natural conditioning system.

Cristina: How many colors are available?

Antonio Cianci: 180. I must say that architecturally the performance is beautiful, suited also for high-end finishes. And it cleans the air.

Cristina: This is what happens when two brilliant Italians come together. Occhio al futuro

On air May 5, 2018

Quakebots, seismic monitoring

By sdg 11, sdg 9, technology

How IoT and cloud technology can change the way we monitor earthquakes

Italy is the most earthquake prone country in Europe, lying close to the line where the Eurasian and African plates meet and constantly grate against each other creating seismic and volcanic tension. According to the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (Ingv), the earthquakes counted in 2017 alone along the Italian peninsula were over 44,000. An average of 120 per day, five per hour. That is: an earthquake every twelve minutes. Most of these are micro-earthquakes, shocks that are rarely felt by the general population.

How does all this seismic activity affect our homes, buildings and infrastructures? Understanding these vulnerabilities and taking steps to help prevent major damage is essential and could potentially save lives.

Quakebots is a seismic monitoring system that uses IoT and cloud technology to record how buildings react to seismic stress. Through the use of AI, they create classification maps that can help understand which buildings may be most vulnerable.

Sensors, called nodes, are installed inside buildings on a load-bearing wall and from that moment start using the wifi network to communicate information to the cloud system. All systems work on the network, so data coming from a system is used to create value for other buildings. The data can then be used by engineers and architects for the different phases of seismic retrofitting. “In Italy we have 7 million buildings in areas with high to medium seismic risk that were built before the 70s” explains Quakebots Founder & CTO Gianni Alessandroni.

Earthquakes are not the only contributing factor – anthropic activity, the vibrations caused by traffic, railways, subways, or even remodeling inside the buildings themselves. The system is able to record all these vibrations and give information about the stress that the building undergoes.

Alessandroni explains how his involvement in the aftermath of the earthquake in l’Aquila (2009) helped shape the idea that became Quakebots. “At the time, I was in charge of the support service for the regional emergency services hotline in Abruzzo. On the day of the earthquake at 6 am, we were told that the hospital had to be evacuated. We took everything we had in the office – servers, workstations – and we went up to L’Aquila and within a few hours we rebuilt a dispatch center, allowing emergency services to continue uninterrupted. I saw the damage, what happened and in the wave of emotions I asked myself if those buildings had previously given any signs of the devastation to come.”

Currently they have almost a hundred buildings being monitored 24/7 in various regions of Italy, including Calabria and Umbria, and their network of Quakebot Nodes is growing. They’ve even received funding from the European Commission SME Instruments Horizon 2020 and won a grant from the Microsoft Bizspark+ program.

Caracol, design and 3D printing

By sdg 9, technology

How 3D printing and artisanal traditions walk hand in hand into the future

Every innovation has many consequences and exploring new design horizons also means bringing together different technologies. In this case, robotics and 3D printing, or additive manufacturing.

The symbol of Caracol Design Studio is a snail, which has a shell with a complex and layered structure. A good metaphor for the idea of what lies behind systemic design.

The impact of 3D printing can be felt in many manufacturing supply chains. For example, they’re working on the design of a customized ergonomic chair. Paolo Cassis, one of Caracol’s founders, explains that they would start by scanning your body and back and using the data, elaborate it digitally to produce a chair, with millimeter accuracy, via the robot and the 3D printer. For a cost of a few hundred euros.

Another example of efficiency with this manufacturing process is the creation of a simple clamp, which affects the performance of a robotic arm. Caracol printed a clamp which is much lighter than the piece traditionally made of metal. Their clamp, installed on the robot, has allowed companies to save money as the the robotic arm is lighter and can achieve the same results as larger, more expensive robots.

This doesn’t mean that they don’t value the way things used to be done, in fact, they believe that the value of tradition should be carried forward even in an innovative field like 3D printing, precisely because a beneficial collaboration between tradition and innovation can be an engine of the progress of design.

A network that matters – delivering medicine out of bounds

By sdg 3, sdg 9, technology

Andreas and Paola met at Singularity University and brought two very different perspectives to one goal: to create a smart, automated delivery network.

Today their company, Matternet, has tested deliveries where roads are long, windy and very bumpy, where taking the short route is not only desirable, it’s necessary.

We went to meet the Matternet team in their lab at Menlow Park.

SANTANA: I’m from the Dominican Republic and I’m a lawyer, I was very passionate about learning how I could use technology to apply into government to make it more efficient and more transparent, and see how we could accelerate impact in the world. Basically because governments worldwide are this big machinery that can implement policies to a large amount of people. Then, in Singularity University I won a scholarship to go there and study for 3 months with astronauts, engineers, intrapeneurs, doctors and what I discovered in singularity was a new world of exponential technologies that doesn’t only accelerate the path in which you can do something, it totally transforms the way you see the world and the way you do things because that is what technology does the best. I met Andreas that is my co founder today in Matternet and he had come with the original concept of using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAV’s to create networks of these flying vehicles and do transportation. Especially in places with no road infrastructure or in places where the roads don’t really work. It related to me especially because I saw the potential to leapfrog all the decision making that has to be done. Traditionally by government so when you put in comparison these two processes going to congress, passing a law saying okay we’re going to invest fifty million dollars into building this road it is a political decision. It is not connected to improving the life of the people that is there especially if these people doesn’t have a vote, doesn’t have a voice in their every day. I don’t have to go through that process because there is a technology that we can put into the hands of everybody that just leapfrog all that process and just can connect these people, it’s very efficient very reliable and is a real 21st century solution to a problem that has been in the world forever. This is a little flying vehicle, it’s called Quadcopter because it has 4 propellers it only has 4 moving parts, those 4 motors are 4 propellers. Everything else is electronics and a battery. And we believe it’s going to be the new, the next paradigm of transportation A truly 21st century solution transportation So this is Michelangelo yes, we’ve built a handful of those vehicles, around ten and we took them out to very extreme locations to test them. We were in a country called Bhutan up in the Himalayas And tested this with the government there, the ministry of Health to help them do deliveries between central hospitals and basic health units that may be 50 or 100 km away. And the way to get it, to go that far, is by having intermediate points where you can automatically land, swap the battery and go out again. So we are creating a network where they can actually have those devices autonomously landing and taking off and in that way creating little aerial bridges, between the places This only part of the system what you see here. The vehicle has a small computer that is connected to the internet. We have developed a cloud system that is giving instructions to the vehicle for what it should be doing. Where it should be taking off from, when it should be taking off and what is the route it should be taking, in order to go to another location. Andreas can we get Michelangelo to fly over to those rocks? Absolutely so you will now instruct Michelangelo to fly between the two places. And now we are going to see him taking off. It’s astounding! I’ts taking off! Oh that is so cool. The cost of energy carrying a payload of maybe a kilogram, over a distance of about 20 km is spectacular, it’s only close to 2 cents.

“Your computers are not safe”

By sdg 9, technology

Marc Goodman is one of the top security experts in the world. Global strategist, FBI Futurologist, Interpol consultant, teacher of law and ethics at Singularity University and author of bestseller Future Crimes, Goodman sends chills down your back when he talks. His stories are full of suspense, more addictive than a thriller, but they are for real. When you realise that you’re not at the movies and that the facts are delivered by a man who knows his business, you start to worry: no computer is inviolable, pacemakers can be hacked, prison cells can be unlocked,  Facebook is hacked 600.000 times everyday. We are accostumed to reading news like this, but we don’t seem to grasp the implications. We don’t realise that cyber crimes are becoming more systemic. Everyday we upload waves of information on the internet, a continuos flow of data that can be used to our advantage, but against us, too. Internet is the source of infinite opportunities and infinite risks, that we need to become accostomed to.

Goodman’s research analyzes and discusses the effects of scientific and technological progress on crime in relation to the legal frameworks  on a global scale. This conversation was an eye opener.

GOODMAN: Just a few weeks ago we had a murderer arrested in Florida. He killed his roommate. He needed to hide the body, and he didn’t know what to do. And so he pushed on his iPhone to talk to Siri, and said, “Siri, where is a good place to hide a body?” And Siri replied, telling him you can throw it in a river, you can throw it in a dump, or you can throw it in a graveyard. The police looked at his computers and they looked at his phone. And when they did an examination, a forensic analysis of the phone, they could see all of his Siri queries in there. Every computer system can be hacked. There has never been built a computer system that could not be hacked. We need better systems, and I think a more interesting system would be a public health model. Using epidemiology—we talk about computer viruses. Let’s treat them as if they were a malady, isolate them. I will say that there are crimes that are very interesting. And for me, that’s what I focus on in my work, looking at how far advanced the criminals are. And so they’re working in cyber, of course. They’re working even in robotics. They’re working in artificial intelligence. They’re working in genetics, bioweapons, all of these different areas. In the old days, if somebody committed a crime at the Banca d’Italia in Rome, the police, when they came to investigate, they knew certain things. They knew the criminal was in Rome. They knew the bank was in Rome. You had the victim and the criminal in the same city. They knew that the Carabinieri or the Polizia di Stato would come in and investigate this. There would be DNA evidence that was left behind. There were systems in place. Now the same person can rob the Banca d’Italia from anywhere in Africa. They can rob it from Moscow. Our system is very challenged by this, because law is domestic. We have national laws. We have some international law, but the cybercrime problem is completely international. A criminal can visit five countries in 5 minutes, just by breaking into a computer in one country after the other. When the bank robber is in Rome and the police are in Rome, it’s easy. But if you have one police officer in Rome and your criminal is in Ukraine or Buenos Aires, they don’t have the budget to send policemen all over the world. There are organizations like that. In the European Union you have Europol in The Hague, which coordinates crime throughout Europe. And in the rest of the world there is Interpol, which coordinates not just in Europe but for the rest of the world. A hundred and ninety member countries coming together to focus on crime. But they have a limited budget. Interpol’s budget is only about $90 million a year. The New York City Police Department is $5 billion. We could create an online reserve police corps. These people would be invited in, they would be trained, we would do a full background check on them, they could have security clearances, and they could augment and help the police by volunteering their time. When we do research on the web, we are really just skimming the surface.

CRISTINA: Can you give us the numbers there?

G: Most people think when they search Google and look for something, they’re seeing the whole Internet. But underneath that is a Dark Web and a Deep Web, which is much larger. In fact, it is over 500 times larger. So the Surface Web is about 19 terabytes, and the Underweb or the Dark Web is 7500. And in that Dark Web you have lots of databases and other hidden information, but that’s where organized crime works. If you look at what we do in security— take the airport for example. After 9/11, what did we do? The terrorists used a lot of creativity in the way that they turned planes into bombs, the way they committed a terrorist attack. We don’t use the same creativity as the criminals. And the fact of the matter is most of what you see is what people call “security theater.” It’s meant to make you feel good and feel protected, but most of it isn’t very sophisticated. There was a study that came out in the US government. They looked at how many guns were caught at airports in the United States. And if you added up the cost of all of the security for the gun found, it was about $40 million per gun. I will say, and complement the European Union, because the European directive on data privacy is perhaps some of the strongest privacy laws in the world. And those in the United States are the weakest. Just about every major country in the world has a national privacy commissioner. The United States does not.

C: You’ve spent time in Italy. What’s your experience with Italian police?

G: Yeah, I’ve worked with a number of police. The Polizia di Stato and the Polizia Postale, delle Comunicazioni. They do a very good job, and they’re internationally recognized experts. They go all over the world. The Italian police have launched a number of very good investigations, and in fact they were pioneering in creating a virtual police force. So actually the Polizia di Stato, you can go online and visit a virtual police station with avatars. No country is perfect, but Italy has done a lot of good work.

“Man will be able to live in outer space”

By sdg 9, technology

When we met Jason Dunn, co-founder of Made In Space, the 3D printer designed by a group of visionary engineers and entrepreneurs, it had recently been installed in the International Space Station. Just recently he produced a wrench. It’s the first time in history that an object was made in space. The first to celebrate is Commander Barry Wilmore. Never before had a missing tool been available so quickly. When the request from the ISS arrived, the Made In Space team designed the tool in CAD and sent the file via email. In the past, months would have passed between the order and delivery. This is what the future holds!